HackTheBox OpenAdmin Write-up

OpenAdmin is yet another medium-difficulty machine, which was a blast to hack on! It involved dealing with various stack components, such as interacting directly with a MySQL database. Furthermore, hopping across multiple users through different escalation vectors was very satisfying. Let's see how it is done! Our first nmap scan does not yield any exciting… Continue reading HackTheBox OpenAdmin Write-up


HackTheBox Traverxec Write-up

Traverxec is an interesting box, mainly because the HackTheBox team rated it as easy while the community disagreed and voted it to medium difficulty. It involved a funky privilege escalation that I had not seen before. Let's see how it's done! Our first nmap scan does not return exciting results: $ nmap -sS -sC -oN… Continue reading HackTheBox Traverxec Write-up


The DEFCON 27 Packet Hacking Village Honeypot Challenge

This year marks the first time I got to attend DEFCON Las Vegas — one of the largest hacker conferences in the world. There are a plethora of things to discover and try out. The talks can be streamed later, but the workshops and spontaneous gatherings? A challenge that caught my eye was the honeypot challenge in… Continue reading The DEFCON 27 Packet Hacking Village Honeypot Challenge


HackTheBox fs0sciety Write-up

fs0ciety is yet another low-hanging fruit among the HackTheBox challenges. It's great for beginners who want to test their process for cracking password-protected zip files and recognition of various encodings. For that, we will use fcrackzip - simply for the reason that it has been around for ages and ships with Kali by default. I… Continue reading HackTheBox fs0sciety Write-up


Explain like I’m five: Cryptographic Hashing

tl;dr Just check out the image and read the details below it if you want to know even more. 🙂 A few days back I read an article by Yunyun Chen explaining Hashing in an infographic. I enjoyed it and read some comments, which pointed out a couple of weak spots that result from common misconceptions… Continue reading Explain like I’m five: Cryptographic Hashing


HackTheBox 0ld_is_g0ld Write-up

0ld_is_g0ld is a HackTheBox challenge and a great way for beginners to familiarize themselves with PDF password cracking. If you have used Hashcat before, it's an easy win. Verifying we indeed are targeting the correct file format: $ file 0ld\ is\ g0ld.pdf 0ld is g0ld.pdf: PDF document, version 1.6 We can extract the hash using… Continue reading HackTheBox 0ld_is_g0ld Write-up

software engineering

The Thing about Mutable Default Arguments in Python

Yesterday I stumbled across some code like this… def search_children(statespace, node, start_index=0, depth=0, results=[]): if depth < MAX_SEARCH_DEPTH: n_states = len(node.states) if n_states > start_index: for j in range(start_index, n_states): if node.states[j].get_current_instruction()['opcode'] == 'SSTORE': results.append(node.states[j].get_current_instruction()['address']) ... The semantics of the code don’t really matter here. Still spot the bug? It’s a very common Python gotcha… Continue reading The Thing about Mutable Default Arguments in Python